<html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-16"> <meta name="keywords" content="uh0u00f[v0000, u, un0xvz, u0, u0h0o0, u0n000000"> <title>u0h0un0WywX - Pain Relief0000000n0tkSt^h</title> </head> <body text="#000000" bgcolor="#ffffff" link="#cd1039" vlink="#1c74ff" alink="#0000dd"> <table border=0 cellpadding=0 cellspacing=0> <tr><td><table border=1 cellpadding=2 cellspacing=0 bgcolor="#0000cc"><tr><td bgcolor="#cceeff" valign=middle nowrap><b><font color="#0000cc">%u0h0un0tkSt^h</font></b></td> <td nowrap bgcolor="#ffffff"><b><a href="history.html" target="_parent"><font color="olive">all</font></a></b></td></tr></table></td> <td>!</td> <td><table border=1 cellpadding=2 cellspacing=0 bgcolor="#0000cc"><tr> <td nowrap bgcolor="#ffffff">u</td><td nowrap bgcolor="#cceeff"><b>1<font color="olive"></font></b></td></tr></table></td> <td>!</td> <td><table border=1 cellpadding=2 cellspacing=0 bgcolor="#0000cc"><tr> <td nowrap bgcolor="#ffffff">2<a href="history-aspirin.html">NSAIDs{0K0</a></td><td nowrap bgcolor="#ffffff">3<a href="history-anes.html">SPA/qg m;Sf[</a></td></tr></table></td></tr></table><br> <b><font color="olive">%'`u00000000000000000 n0t^h</font></b>0!!<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine"></a>/<a href="subs-endorphin.html">0000000</a> <ul> <table border=1 cellpadding=3 cellspacing=0> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="opium"></a>BC30C</td><td>Cuneiform script Tib_eW[ g0fK00_0<font color="#0000cc">Sumerian 00000N</font> n0clay tablets |Wg k0000n0gRn0 L0B0c0_0000000o00000000s(Wn0000 WS萒0`S0000000n0WSJSRn00WWk0c0_0gSn0^efg0000000No00BC3500t^0Tib_eW[0OD0Y0_0h0U00f0D000|Wgo0000000n0WSn000000Nn0V0W Nipperg0d0K00000000n0=hW0egn000Aln0cƖ0000n0#uulk0d0D0f0 U00f0D0f00000000k0D0_000000NL00g0SO0000=hWh0H000f0D00000000No0000"SkU0y(Gil)00_00Y0 iir(Hul) h0|T0g0D0_000!S<a href="http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3833/is_200207/ai_n9107282" target=new>*</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>BC0</td><td>00o00Assyria 000000Babylonia 00000k00OH000000000No000Al0"aratpa-pal"h0 Te0Q0_00 iirR^f[g0n000^\n0000 Tg0B00Papavern0no0S0n000000 Tk01uegY00h0U00f0D0000000000000000S(n0SN00000n0000000000k0o00sY^yn0)YOL0wD0L0d0D0_000n0[n0_g00c0f0D00YL0cK00f0D000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>BC30C</td><td>0W-Nwmn0 Crete Island000\n0Knossosn0n0Gozin0\U0D0Qgn0^y>yK000 0<font color="#0000cc">Poppy Goddess</font> 00n0sY^yP 0L01936t^k0zvU00_00Herakleion Museum@b50000efMR350001500t^ n00n0h000000ؚU079cmn0Pg00,gn000JW;NL0d0D0_000000d0Q00!NKb0 Nk0B0R0f0D000000\g0o0000n0[P w'`00 n0vK00bQW0_0mSOn0Y\O(uL0w00f0D0_000!S<a href="http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/poppy_goddess.html" target=new>1</a>/<a href="http://www.pantheon.org/articles/p/poppy_goddess.html" target=new>2</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>BC1550t^</td><td>SN0000n0Sef Evers Papyrus000]n0qgn0Luxorn0яO0n0Xn0-Nn0000n0n0K00zvU00_000000000000000N0000f[ L01872t^k00000000000K00eQW0_00000"00000@b5 k0o00000h0Nn0000h0n0mTel0fK00f0D000SN0000n0N0o00u0aw 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href="../pain/people3.html#Hippocrates" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=new>P</a> 000000 BC4600BC377, 0SN0000n0;SV 000"0wm00\u~00 o00000n0 Nubk0h0Rgk0d0D0f0wc0f0D0_0S'`L0B00L00 o0W0j0K0c0_0000K00h000meconk0d0D0f0o0 W0f0D0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Theophrastus"></a>BC3C</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Theophrastus</font>0000000 <a href="../pain/people3.html#Theophrastus" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=new>P</a> BC3720287, <a href="history-all.html#Aristotle">Aristotle</a>n0_}0 0uf[n06r 0)n0Wf 0 iirn0tkS 0k0o00000k0d0D0f0n0 L0B000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Asclepiades"></a>BC3C</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Asclepiades</font>00000000 o0?Grk00c0f0|^y/qNn0wS00S0h00W0f0D000 </td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>BC330t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Alexander the Great</font>00000n00000000'Ys, BC356 - BC323 o00000`_n0Bf0uQXn0u00RvY0vvg00000cSW0_00000o0000000000L0uk0P000000g0[{kW0_0n0a00 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color="#0000cc">Pedanius Dioscorides</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Dioscorides" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=new>P</a> AD40?090?, 0000u~00n00000N000v^n0͎;S0irf[n0Vy o00000͎n0`_k0_͎W00-Nяqge0000e0000e000e0000j0i00T0Wk0J0Q00Ih0]0n0R00ꁉ0n0[k00c0f0ƖMzW0_00Wfn0 0De Materia Medica ir 0o0000n0cSel0BdSel0Y\O(uh0u\O(uk0d0D0f0s0}k0U00_0gSh02g0B000cSlk0d0D0f0o0 000n0 In0d0D0_0-g0xD0f0K00'W>d_jg0^}0QW0_000sNb-Ng0Y00d0v0W0_00000rk0W0_00n0o000000 Meconiumh0|Tp00000000\O(uL01_D002L0K00f0K000000g0-gn0\fr萒0R0;R0L00Q~0g0d0M0:RU0j0D00F0k0Y000-gtPbn0hbk00~0c0Y0P0j0R000eQ000S0F0W0f0AmQW0f0O00n0cg00000k0K0M0S00{0i0j0O0W0f0]0S0x0;bc0f000h00~0_0e_0j0nL0g0f0oO0j0c0f0D000e0 Tik0LF00S0n00F0k0W0f0Ɩ0_00n00sNbg0Y0000000k0W0f0OX[Y000 0 00000000n0ir 0 \]  N0 000000001983t^ 0<br> 0opium000n0no00SN0000 opiong0B000 0Alpoppy juice 00asTY000uu0duk0O(uU00f0D0_0 0000000Philonium 0h0D0F0ukn0Qeo00 0}v00000000000000000.zP[0oNW0_0000000n00000 0L0MTU00f0D0_00 00o00\ϑg0B00p0u00T0R00 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target="painright">P</a> 1632017230St. Paul's Cathedral0-W0_0Vn0^{[ k00c0f00zHhU00_00Wreno0000n0k00000n00-Nzzk0W0f0NQ0_0\On0<a href="history-block.html#syringe">l\hV!3</a>g00Rn0rk0000j0i0n0ir0leQW00F0h0W0f0D0_00SOD0k000000leQW00F0h0W0_0L00l01Yc0_0n0g00[0-NbkW0_000S<a href="http://www.cja-jca.org/cgi/content/full/47/4/367" target="new">1</a>/<a href="http://theoncologist.alphamedpress.org/cgi/content/full/9/2/207" target="new">1</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Elsholtz"></a><a href="history-block.htmlElsholtz">1665t^</a><br>1667t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Johann Sigmund Elsholtz</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Elsholtz" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 162301688, 000n0;S+^ h0<font color="#0000cc">Johann Daniel Major</font>163401693, 000n0Yy;S0Padua'Yf[g0f[MO o00Nn0<a href="history-block.html#syringe">Yl\</a>h0pnBvlk0bRW0_0000g0000n0YQl\k000hQTKbS0Lc0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Helmont"></a>17C</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Jean Baptista van Helmont</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Helmont" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 1579-1644, 0000n0Qy;S0 0;SBvSf[>mn00000 0 o000000;A~k0Oc0_0n0g00000ZSX Doctor opiatush0|Tp00f0D0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Sydenham"></a><a href="history-all.html#Sydenham">1680t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Thomas Sydenham</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Sydenham" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 162401689, 162401689, Vg0n0;Sf[n0HQƙg0B000<a href="history-all.html#Hippocrates">Hippocrates</a>h0|Tp00f0D0_00 AmLun0Ogn0000000zvW0f0D0_00u0n0lBvk0J0D0f000|q}vj0lBv0c1UW0f0D0_00@k0D000000k0n0yrRh0W0f0000vn0O(u0nfSU0[0_00)s}q0000000\uk0d0D0f00o0X00f0 W0f0D0_00Sydenhamo00 0tincture of opium000000 000"<font color="#0000cc">Sydenham's Laudanum</font>"h0W0f0X0QW0_00000000000000000k00000MTW00000000000000000j0i0n0000000d0Q0_00N00P``k0e0f0D0_0Ogu000k00 gRg0B000 0hQn0^yL0N0n0悩`0QeF0_00k0NH0܌F0_0irn0-Ng00000{0i0Ng0 gRj00n0o0j0D0 0h0c0_00S_Bfn000000g0AmLW0_0n0g00"Opiophilos; lover of opium"h0|Tp00_00Sydenhamo00|_ꁫ0`c0f0D0_0uk0d0D0f00gRk0 W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1684t^</td><td>George Wolfgang Wedel164501721, 000Jena'Yf[n0;Sf[n0Yec o00000n0qSz'`0fJTW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Dover"></a><a href="history-all.html#Dover">1732t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Thomas Dover</font> (166001742, <a href="#Sydenham">Sydenham!</a>n0_P[0;S+^0wmʌ o00un0h0W0f0 0Dover's powder0000ce0000000ce 0zvWlce 00\O001788t^k0o00000n0@\ek0c(uU00_00<br> 00000cen0-No0 00000000]xwh0Rwx000000000000000000<a href="analg-venom.html#ipecacuanha">000</a>0000S00]xwh0Rwx00000|pqW0_0[hVg0Joshua Ward</font>168401761, 0000n0k0[0;S+^ k000QzvU000N g Tk0j0c0_0000000o00NLucieL0W0f0D000?e^n0[}T0SQ0f0sYs[ Nn09DukeSn09wh0j0001709t^22g22ek0Juan Fernandez islandsg00Alexander SelkirkDaniel Defoen0Robinson Crusoen0000 0QeQW0f0D00000000o00000n000000f0UcrsW00[0n W0f00^VW0f0D000 </td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>0</td><td>000x0o0VYeh0h00k0000L0eQc0_00VYeo0R0yX0f0D0_0n0g00?Grn0nfS0RwW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1774t^</td><td><font colot="#oooocc">Robert Clive</font>1725/9/29/01774/11/22, 000n0Wy0{D0_00000n0͎N0?el[ 0000-Nkk0K0K000ꁺkW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Moore"></a><a href="history-chemical.html#Moore">1784t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc"><b>James</b> Carrick <b>Moore</b></font>176301834, 00000u~00n00000n0Yy;S ^yL}'Wh00000D}0T0[0f0TW0_00Mooreo0S_uk0R0f00000O(uW0_00 0A method of preventing or diSminishing pain in several operations of surgery 0g0^yL}0'WY00ňn09}NW0f0D000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Derosne"></a><a href="history-all.html#Derosne">1803t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Jean-Francois Derosne</font>177401855000n0dR+^ o0000n0T\O(ubRh0W0f0Narcotine0XSW0_0h0zvhW0_00_k0Narcotinek0o0T\O(uo0j0K0c0_0n0g0<a href="analg-opioid.html#noscapine">00000</a> (Narcotin)h09eyU000s(Wg0o0Th0W0f0(uD00000 </td></tr> <tr bgcolor="#ffffcc"><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Serturner"></a><a href="history-all.html#Serturner">1806t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Serturner</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Serturner" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 178301841, 000n0000000n0dR+^ o000000O0Oc0f0D0_0L00]0n0S_Bfn0000n0Ro0 Nx[g00RM0NN0_000B0~00RK0j0K0c0_00W0_00000n0 gRbRL00K0c0f0D0j0K0c0_0n0g00bQW00F0h0W0_0L00j0K0j0K0bQU00j0K0c0_00_0~0_0~0000k0mSO000000K0Q0_0h0S00@?oL0s0_00]000kxxh000000g0mF00d0D0k0}vD0P}vf0S0QY0S0h0L0g0M0_000000000Αrg0{kϑn0S_0d0Q00RꁫL0 g(uY00[0p~0ԏW00S0n0}vD0P}vfk0zvuRgL0B00S0h00xW0_000000^yqn0"Yn0^yg0B00Morpheus00000k0a0j00g00000000 morphinumh0 Te0Q0_001816t^k0xvzbg0zvhW00f[Oo0S0n0zvh0ckS_k0UOW0_001817t^3g000g0000n0qirf[OL0K00_0bk0o00000L0|_0 TOTk0ccW0_00 Tt^0000Tf[O0K00k0 Tf[MO0NH0_00T0Wn0'Yf[L0S0n0Ok0j00D001831t^k0o000000f[XbL0 0͑j0;Sf[vzvn0S0D0_0 0R>~0_0_0H0f0000000ތ0NH0020000000c0f0D000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Robiquet-nos"></a><a href="analg-opioid.html#Robiquet-nos">1817t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Pierre Jean Robiquet</font><a href="#Robiquet2">!</a><a href="../pain/people3.html#Robiquet" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 178001840, 0000n0f[ L00<a href="analg-opioid.html#noscapine">00000</a>n0Sf[i 0zl[W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Quincey"></a>1822t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Thomas de Quincey</font>1785/8/1501859/12/8, 0000n0U֊[ L00 0?Gr g(un0JT}v Confessions of an Opium Eater 00fD0_00S_Bf?Gro0Tlg0B000Quinceyo0okux0n0udRh0W0f0(uD0Y00n0a0-Nkh0j0c0_00ff nK0d0j0eSOg0ꁉ0n0?Gr-NkSO0}c0f0S0|T0`0L00>yOvq_L0'YM0O00NN0`k0c0_0h0n0^㖂0c0_00iN00000000000 T00000000000o00 0?Gr g(un0JT}v 0n0q_g0?Grk0W000F0k0j0c0_0h0y0f0D000 S0n0`o00000000ak0cc0f0D0_0N0000000k0 a0NH0f0 0{^`Nf 00\OfU0[00j0i00݅S[_0a0k0Y'Yj0q_0S|0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Robiquet2"></a><a href="history-all.html#Robiquet">1832t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Pierre Jean Robiquet</font><a href="#Robiquet-nos">!</a><a href="../pain/people3.html#Robiquet" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 178001840, 0000n0f[ L00000K00<a href="analg-opioid.html#codeine">0000</a>0XSW0_00[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=11625518&dopt=Abstract" target="new">PubMed</a>]</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="thebaine"></a>1835t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Pierre-Joseph Pelletier</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Pelletier" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 178801842000n0Sf[0dR+^ L00000K00<a href="analg-opioid.html#thebaine">0000</a>0XSW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1842t^</td><td>0000n0FUNk0000000o0-NVk00_00U00_00-NVg0o0uk0o00000000<a href="analg-venom.html#aconitine">DP[</a>L0O00f0D0_0017N}k00qg000O>yL0000K000000v0k08QW0_00ngo08eQ0ybkW0_0L00-NVg0000n08TYqn0L0^~0c0_001842t^k00008eQ)j00P0c0f00000&bNL0wM0_00<br> 0'k]k0o0YO0n0-Nk`L0D0_0k00K0K000Z00^Nk0o00j0K0c0_00'k]g0o00000000L}Sg0 g(uW0f0M0_0n0k0[W00qgWS0000-NVg0o0UYqL0;NAmg0B0c0_00UYqk000000n0BdSg0o03-Ng|k0Ɩ-Nvk08TSU000W0K00R'`g0B000Ne0L}Sg0o0x{8TS0L}0n0g0000000n0'YJSo0-Ng0NU0003-Ng|~0g08U000n0o0kv\j0O00ER'`g0B000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="1848"></a><a name="Merck"></a>1848t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Georg Merck</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Merck" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=painright>P</a> 181501888, 000!0000n0Sf[ L00un0000K00<a href="analg-antispastic.html#papaverine">00000</a>0XSW0_00</td></tr> <tr bgcolor="#ffffcc"><td valign=top><a name="1855"></a><a name="Wood"></a>1853t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Alexander Wood</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Wood" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=new>P</a> 181701884, 00000n0mi;S o00<font color="font color="#0000cc">Daniel Ferguson</font>0000Qn0_jwQ mi L0\Oc0_00000Wl\hVn0HQzk0ň@wY00-Nzzn0ݑ0zvfW0_00<a href="history-block.html#syringe">l\hV</a>h0ݑ0(uD0f00k000000@\@bk0leQW00^yL}u0lBvW0_00S000n01XJTn0_0l\hVh0ݑn0000o0N,vj0qS`h0j000YO0n0聊^;SL0S000Oc0f0un0_00k00000n0v Nl\0Lc0_00 0<font color="#0000cc">v Nl\ hypodermic injection</font> 0h0D0F0Io00<font color="font color="#0000cc">Charles Hunter</font><a href="history-block.html#Hunter-C">!</a>0000n0Yy;S k00c0f0\O00_00Huntero000000o0SOn0i0S0k0l\W0f000O00]0n0uRgo0uuMOx0l\W0_04XTh0 TX0g0B00h0;N5_W0f00Woodh0֊Nk0j0c0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>0</td><td>0000WSS&bNAmerican Civil War, 186101865t^ Bfk0o00S͎`0Q0g0280N000n0000000h0500,000N n0000 0mW0_0h0D000040NNn0uQXL0000-Nkk0ec0_0h0D0F0L0B000<a href="#Wood">0000n0l\</a>o0Q gk0ky00h0aX01Y0[00S0h0j0O0uRg0ŏk00_00Y00WSS&bN0^uQTQ0k0000n0OXU00f0D0f00Ypen00^uQL0S0n0l\(u0000k0=nh0j000S0n0S0h0K000000-Nko0 0uQu 0h0W0f0^O0w000S0h0h0j0c0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Wright"></a>1874t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Charles Romley <b>Alder Wright</b></font>0000 St. Mary's Hospital Medical Schooln0Sf[ L0<a href="analg-opioid.html#heroin">0000</a>0TW0_0000000!q4lbxB00D0o0bx0000g0QtY00h00000000000000000000 h0j0000000g0o000000000ubY00S0h00f0K0k0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1881t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Alexander Crombie</font>00000000n0Presidency General Hospital L00<a href="history-chloroform.html">000000</a>Tk0HQza000000k000MRb0Lc0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Dreser"></a><a href="history-all.html#Dreser">1898t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Heinrich Dreser</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Dreser" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 186001924, 00000n0zv n0xvz[g00eW0D0u'`0000\SOh0W0f00000n00000>yK00<a href="analg-opioid.html#heroin">0000</a>L0Th0W0f0zvXU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top>1901t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Racoviceanu-Pitesti</font>000n0Yy;S L00o0X00f000000n0<a href="analg-bl-epi.html#subarachnoid">ĚTQbN</a>k000Tn01XJT0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="kitagawa"></a>1901t^</td><td>4g2e0<font color="#0000cc">S]YNQΐ</font> TSK\ 0<font color="#0000cc">qgos^</font>ёl L00qgNg0PU00_0,{3Ve,gYyf[O2evk0J0D0f00,gRn0 iTn0uO1XJTSs0NLuRn00000n0<a href="analg-bl-epi.html#subarachnoid">O00 NbN</a>n01XJT0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1902t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Richard von Steinbuchel</font>000000n0Qy;S 0000h0<a href="analg-antispastic.html#scopolamine">000000</a>k000 Twilight sleep JSTrKak000#uyT0zvW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Haag"></a>1911t^<hr>1912t^</td><td>12g1K000000n0000k0J0D0f0<font color="#0000cc">NV?GrOpInternational Opium Convention </font>L0PU00_00<hr> 1g23e0000k0f00Rn0irq}6Rk0Y00ag}g0B00<font color="#0000cc">NV?Grag}</font>L0pSU00_000000o0X000000000000000000'Yj0i0L0ag}n0q}6R[ah0j0c0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1914t^</td><td>s|Vg0o0Rn0S}lg0B00 0<font color="#0000cc">0000l Harrison Narcotics Act</font> 0L06R[U000VzS_@\n0MQ10_0S0h0j0O00n0u#u08eQ0 0dR0XI{k0_NY00S0h0L0Ulh0U00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1914t^</td><td>,{N!kNLu'Y&bL0RzvW000000o0&b4Xg0uuh0W0f0(uD00000000-NkL0XH0_00~0_00uQXo000000O(uW0_00S00k0000S&bVg0o0&b_000000000n0O(uL0XRW0_00yrk0000000h00000g00S0n0PTL0UWg0B000OULn0b'YL0a_U00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="1916"></a>1916t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Martin Freund</font>h0<font color="#0000cc">Edmund Speyer</font>Frankfurt'Yf[ L0<a href="analg-opioid.html#thebaine">0000</a>0Seh0W0f0<a href="analg-opioid.html#oxycodon">000000</a>0TbW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Trendelenburg-P"></a><a href="history-all.html#Trendelenburg-P">1917t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Paul Trendelenburg</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Trendelenburg-P" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 1884/3/2401931/11/4, 000n0tf[0oRNn0<a href="anat-endocrine.html#adr">000000</a>Rlj0i00000n0ut0tf[_jik0Y00NLuvj0)jZ L000000K00R0QW0_0Vxn0Q'W0ؚ00h0M0k0[U000RKRL00(uϑk0vS_Y00<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine1">0000</a>g0b6RU000S0h00D0`0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1919t^</td><td>6g28e <font color="#0000cc">000000ag}</font>n0pSk0h00j0D00<a href="#Haag">000ag}</a>k0ybQW0f0D0j0K0c0_0V0ag}0ybQW0_00 ~0_00000000ag}k0We0O0V#v}n0,{23ag0 k0o00#vReQVo0?GrSs0]0n0Nn0irn0v0#vk0YY00S0h0L0 U00_000000o0000ag}n0wR0V#v}Ozlpk0We0M00#vk0!nW0_00#vo0000ag}k0Y00[p0LF0_jh0W0f0 0?GrSs0Nn0qSzTn0S_OUYTO 0YTOn0MR 00#vtNOn0zlpk000-nW0_00OUYTOo0irk0Y00Vq}6R?eV{n0[p0TVK00n01XJTfn0We0O0rln0i0Lc0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1920t^</td><td>0000g0000L0lQvk0ybkU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1924t^<br>01925t^</td><td valign=top><font color="#0000cc">00000V?GrOp</font>k0f0<a href="#Haag">000ag}</a>0܈Y00TS[L0\ObU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Robert-Robinson"></a>1925t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Sir Robert Robinson</font><a href="../pain/people3.html#Robinson" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 188601975, 0000n0Sf[, 1947t^<a href="history-nobel.html#1947c">0000Sf[ތSތ</a> L00000n0i 0zl[W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="methadone"></a>1937t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Max Bockmhl</font>h0<font color="#0000cc">Gustav Ehrhart</font>000n0 IG Farben0000000000>y n0yf[ L0YyKbSg0!|Ok0O(ug0M00K0d0ca'`n0NOD0udR0c"}W0f00Hoechst 10820<a href="analg-opioid.html#methadone">0000</a> 0TbW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="meperidine"></a>1939t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Otto Eisleb</font>000Hoechst-Am-Mainn0IG Farbenn0Sf[ h0O SchaumannL0compound 8909<a href="analg-opioid.html#meperidine">00000</a>0000 0TbW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Marshall-Gates"></a>1952t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Marshall D Gates</font><a href="../pain/people2.html#Marshall-Gates" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=painright>P</a> 191502003, s|V000000'Yf[Yec L00000n0hQTb0R0f0[bU0[0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="fentanyl"></a>1960t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Janssen Pharmaceutica</font>Belgium, <font color="#0000cc">Paul Janssen</font> <a href="../pain/people2.html#Janssen" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target=painright>P</a>n0000L00<a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanyl">000000</a>0TbW0_001963t^k0^4Xk0Q_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="SC"></a>1961t^</td><td valign=top><a href="#Haag">NV?Grag}</a>o0<font color="#0000cc">k0Y00XSNag}XSNag}0Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs </font>k0_M0}L00_00yr[n0ir;Nk0 0 Tin0R(un0B00irk0d0M00;SBv0xvzj0i0n0yr[n0vvk0d0D0f01SU00_04XT0dM00S000n0u#uJ00s0Of}0ybkY00_00n0Vag}</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="etorphine"></a>1963t^</td><td>Kenneth Bentley000000n0McFarlan-Smith and Co. n0xvz0000L0JSTb00000h0W0f0<a href="analg-opioid.html#etorphine">000000</a>0TbW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1964t^</td><td valign=top>e,gL0<a href="#SC">XSNag}</a>k0RvW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="1967"></a>1967t^</td><td><a href="analg-hospice.html#Saunders"><font color="#0000cc">Cecily Saunders</font></a><a href="../pain/people2.html#Saunders" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 191702005/7/14 L0<a href="http://www.stchristophers.org.uk/page.cfm" target=new>St. Christopher's Hospice</a>0000ʐY 0uR-W0_00St. Christopher's Hospiceo00;Sf[vk0`n0uu0T0R00el0NQ0RH0_0яNvj0<a href="analg-hospice.html">0000</a>g0B000Saunderso00L00+gg`k0[Y000000n0un0͑'`0c1UW000000KR0NLuk0^0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Lowenstein"></a>1969t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Lowenstein"><font color="#0000cc">Edward Lowenstein</font></a>MGHn0Ty;S L0_ӁKbSk0J0Q00'Yϑ0000Tn0O(u0^00QY_jh0j00֊e0zvhW0_000!<a href="analg-anes.html#opioid">00000T</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Goldstein1"></a><a href="anat-receptor.html#Goldstein1">1971t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Avram Goldstein</font><a href="http://www.cpdd.vcu.edu/Pages/Index/AwardBios/GoldsteinAvram.html" target=new>*</a>, <a href="../pain/people.html#Tachibana" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Shinro Tachibana</font></a>0L000000S[SOn0zvk0d0j0L00zSOyr'`n0[0zvhW0_000<b font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">!</b><a href="anat-receptor.html#Goldstein1" font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">s0}</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top>1971t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Philip H. Sechzer</font>191402004 L0 <a href="analg-adm.html#pca"><font color="#0000cc">PCA</font></a><font color="#0000cc">n0Sb_</font>h0j00 analgesic demand system 0HhW0 <font color="#0000cc">00000</font>0Oc0_0S_ulh0W0f09}NW0_00[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=5100236&dopt=Abstract" target=new>PubMed</a>, Anesth Analg. 1971 Jan-Feb;50(1):1-10.] <a href="http://www.cja-jca.org/cgi/content/full/47/4/367" target=new>*</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Liebeskind"></a>1971t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people2.html#Liebeskind" target="painright">John C Liebeskind</a>193501997, UCLA_tf[ n0Labn0<font color="#0000cc">David Mayer</font>0o00-N3h03n0.z0n0MOn0l:Rok000uRg0y00<a href="anat-midbrain.html#pag">PAG</a>n0{0|0hQWh03n0,{3[hTVpp}vn0l:RoL0uRg(<a href="analg-stimul.html">SPA</a>)0cd0S0h00:yW0_00<br> <a href="../pain/people.html#a" target="painright">Huda Akil</a>0o00SPAo0<a href="analg-opioid.html#naloxone">00000</a>g0neU000S0h00:yW00Liebeskindo03L000000iirꌒ03L0\O0S0h00N,nW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="Misuse-of-Drugs-Act"></a><a href="subs-dependence.html#Misuse-of-Drugs-Act">1971t^</a></td><td>Vg0irqN(ul the Misuse of Drugs ActL06R[U00_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="fentanyl-j"></a>1972t^</td><td><a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanyl">000000</a>L0,gg0zvXU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Vietnam"></a>1973t^</td><td>0000o0Nd0n0&bNg0WeSW0_00r0h0d0o0<a href="history-block.html#Vietnam">0000&bN</a>00F0r0h0d0o0&bN Drug Warsg0B00000000o0WS0000n0ЙYuW0_0hQx͎uQXn035%L0<a href="analg-opioid.html#heroin">0000</a>0(uD0_0S0h0L0B00020%o0RR-Nk00000-Nkk0K0K0c0f0D0_0S0h000_00Richard Nixon'Yq}o00000k0[Y00&bN0[W00irqN(u[V{k0Jerry Jaffe0N}TW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Snyder"></a><a href="history-all.html#Snyder">1973t^</a></td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Snyder" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Solomon Snyder</font></a>Johns Hopkins'Yf[ h0<a href="../pain/people.html#Pert" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Candace Pert</font></a>Snydern0f[u L0<a href="anat-receptor.html#opioid"><font color="#0000cc">00000S[SO</font></a>0zvW003Qn000000n0P}TMO0 T[W0_000<b font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">!</b><a href="anat-receptor.html#Snyder" font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">s0}</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Simon&Terenius"></a><a href="anat-receptor.html#Eric-Simon">1973t^</a></td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Eric-Simon" target="painright">Eric J. Simon</a>New York Medical Center 0<a href="../pain/people.html#Terenius" target="painright">Lars Terenius</a>Uppsala, Sweden 0 Tt^00000S[SO0zvW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Brompton-mixture"></a>1973t^</td><td>0000n0@\eL00<a href="analg-opioid.html#Brompton-cocktail">0000000000</a>0oulBvn0_00n0YS_j0Nh0W0f0bW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1974t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#t" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Lars Terenius</font></a>h0<font color="#0000cc">Agneta Wahlstrm</font>Uppsala Sweden o000n03 ĚmK00__00000-Nn0 00000^</tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="Kosterlitz"></a><a href="subs-endorphin.html#Kosterlitz">1975t^</a></td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#h" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">John Hughes</font></a>h0<font color="#0000cc">Hans Walter Kosterlitz</font><a href="../pain/people2.html#Kosterlitz" target="painright" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 1903/4/2701996/10/26, 0000u~00n0000000n0tf[ L000000L000000n0zzxh0000n08|{n0S.~0b6RW00S0n0b6RL0<a href="analg-opioid.html#naloxone">00000</a>j0i0k00c0f0bbU000S0h00)R(uW0f00<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine">0000</a>h0 TX0\O(u0cd0STir000n03K00XSW0f00<a href="subs-endorphin.html#Met-enk">000000000000</a>h0<a href="subs-endorphin.html#Leu-enk">00000000000</a>0zvW0_000<b font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">!</b><a href="subs-endorphin.html#Kosterlitz" font style="color:black;background-color:#ffffcc">s0}</a></td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Snyder"></a><a href="subs-endorphin.html#Snyder">1975t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Rabi Simantov</font> & <a href="../pain/people.html#s" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Solomon H. Snyder</font></a>Johns Hopkin'Yf[tf[ L0N[rn03K000000iir<a href="subs-endorphin.html#b-endorphine">0000000</a> 0|W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1976t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#a" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Huda Akil</font></a>0o00l00000Rirk0NH00h00u0$PL0 NfW00]00k04OD03Qn0000000000 NfY00S0h001XJTW0_00<a href="anat-antinoci.html#sia">0000u</a>k0Y00gRn0[vxvzg0B000</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Martin-WR"></a><a href="history-all.html#Martin-WR">1976t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">William Robert Martin</font><a href="../pain/people2.html#Martin" font style="color:red;background-color:#ffffcc" target="painright">P</a> 192101993 0<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=945347" target=new>*</a>o00 N-allyl-normetazocine (SKF-10,047)n0RgL0S[SOk00S[SOk0000j0D0n0g00,{3n000000S[SO0<a href="anat-receptor.html#sigma">S[SO</a>n0X[(W0:yUW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Yaksh"></a>1976t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Yaksh" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Tony L. Yaksh</font></a>h0<font color="#0000cc">Rudy</font>L0000n0<a href="analg-bl-epi.html#subarachnoid">O00 NT</a>k000000bNW0f00 ĚR{'`n0u\O(u0[W00 Ěk0000000S[SOL0X[(WW00uk0[NW0f0D00S0h00:yW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top><a name="1977"></a>1977t^<br>1979t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Richardson" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Donald E. Richardson</font></a>h0<a href="../pain/people.html#a" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Huda Akil</font></a>L00<a href="analg-stimul.html#dbs">3Q:Roul</a>0Y0_00u0n0lBvn0_000^4xXKbS0LJ0F0h00-N3h03n0yLk0ui0:ReQW00f0k0l:RoW0_0h0S000u0L0nW0_00]0S0g00ui0V[W00`L000000bY0h003k0:RoAmL0Am000F0k0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top>1977t^<br>1979t^</td><td valign=top>><font color="#0000cc">Yoshio Hosobuchi</font>0o00<a href="anat-antinoci.html#pag">PAG</a>:Rok000uo0000000g0;[U000S0h00QW00PAG:Rok000uk0o0QV'`000000000L0NY00h0c[W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="numa"></a>1979t^</td><td>N'Yf[;Sf[n0<a href="../pain/people2.html#Numa" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">lck\O</font></a>0-N͑_HQu0o000000000XSW00N+gzn0kWL000000<a href="subs-endorphin.html#enkephalin">0000000</a>h0 TX0g0B00S0h00f0K0k0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="Goldstein2"></a><a href="subs-endorphin.html#Goldstein">1979t^</a></td><td><font color="#0000cc">Avram Goldstein</font><a href="http://www.cpdd.vcu.edu/Pages/Index/AwardBios/GoldsteinAvram.html" target=new>*</a>, <a href="../pain/people.html#Tachibana" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Shinro Tachibana</font></a>0L0<a href="subs-endorphin.html#dynorphin">0000000</a>0bQW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1979t^</td><td>ؚ(gZSSYecN'Yf[f[ n0'Yf[bu`0c0_0 i0u_+^HQusw]'Yf[Yec L0-N_h0j0c0f00003K00<a href="subs-endorphin.html#kyotorphin">kyotorphin</a></font>L0XSU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top>1979t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Josef K. Wang</font>0L0<a href="analg-bl-epi.html#subarachnoid">O00 NT</a>x0n0<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine1">0000</a>bNn0聊^_(uW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top>1979t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">Murat Behar</font>0n0<a href="analg-bl-epi.html">lxYT</a>x0<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine1">0000</a>0bNW00聊^k0J0Q00irbN000h0W0f0n00WMOL0xzW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1986t^</td><td>WHOo00<a href="pain-cancer.html">L00n0u0</a>K00n0>e00V0W0f00<a href="analg-cancer.html">L00'`uu}T</a>n0000000 0Cancer Pain Relief 00zvhW0_00<a href="analg-cancer.html#3ladder">WHO three-step analgesic ladder</a>00000o0X00h0W0f00P00_0pen0un0O(u0W,gh0W0_0uulBvl0zvhW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1986t^</td><td>Russell K. Portenoy (New York's Beth Israel Medical Center)h0<a href="#Foley">Kathleen M. Foley</a>L00yr[n0<a href="pain-classification.html#acute-chronic-pain">ba'`u</a>k0[Y00<a href="analg-opioid.html#morphine">00000</a>O(un0 g(uO0:yW0_00[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=2873550&query_hl=26" target=new>PubMed</a>, Pain. 1986 May;25(2):171-86.]</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1988t^</td><td>anesthesiology-based postoperative pain management service.h0W0f00Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (<a href="analg-adm.html#pca">PCEA</a>)L0\eQU00_00[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=3337359&query_hl=38" target=new>PubMed</a>, Anesthesiology. 1988 Jan;68(1):100-6.]</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1990t^N<br>1994t^</td><td>1990t^Nk0S[SOiS[SOn0000000L0QY_jh0j000, 00000S[SOL0000000U00_00U00k01994k00*gwn000000S[SO00000S[SO(opioid receptor-like 1: <a href="anat-receptor.html#orl1">ORL1</a>)L000000000000000g0000000U00_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="DOR"></a>1992t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#Chris-Evans" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Christopher J. Evans</font></a>0<a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/sci;258/5090/1952" target=new>*</a>h0<a href="../pain/people.html#ieffer" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Brigitte L. Kieffer</font></a>0<a href="../pain/people.html#Chris-Evans" target="painright"><a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1334555" target=new>*</a>n00000L0rzW0f00DOR00000S[SO n0cDNAn0000000k0bR0W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap><a name="KOR"></a>1993t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">WS Ŗe</font>0CQN'Yf[0sS'YYec L0KORk00000S[SO <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T36-449TJJM-9V&_user=1029206&_coverDate=08%2F30%2F1993&_fmt=full&_orig=search&_cdi=4938&view=c&_acct=C000050562&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1029206&md5=966e348eebe04fb9d99ed810bd8bb7b6&ref=full" target=new>*</a>0MOR00000S[SO, 1994t^ <a href="http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T0H-482RDMK-7&_user=1029206&_coverDate=01%2F31%2F1994&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050562&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=1029206&md5=e1442144555932bdc7387d22d3510ea1" target=new>*</a>n0cDNAn00000000W0_00</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1994t^</td><td><font color="#0000cc">y0uTf_</font>N'YTyf[ 0L000000000S[SO,00000n0N!ki h0cDNAK00n0zvs<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8393525?dopt=Abstract" target=new>*</a>0</td></tr> <tr><td valign=top nowrap>1997t^</td><td><a href="../pain/people.html#k" target="painright"><font color="#0000cc">Abba J. Kastin</font></a>0L00S[SOk0yrpuvk0P}TY00<a href="subs-endorphin.html#endomorphin">00000000-1,2</a>L000n03K00XSW0_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="durotep-patch"></a><a href="analg-opioid.html#durotep-patch">2002t^</a></td><td>L}v8TSWc}'`LvuulBvdR 0<a href="analg-opioid.html#durotep-patch">000000000</a> 0<a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanyl-patch">000000000</a>n000000dR L0,gg0L00'`uun0lBvh0W0f0zvXU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="remifentanyl"></a>2006t^</td><td>,gg0'`u<a href="analg-opioid.html#remifentanyl">00000000</a>L0zvXU00_00<a href="#fentanyl">1972t^!</a>n0<a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanyl">000000</a>zvXNeg035t^v00n0hQTk0O(ug0M00'`uL0XH0_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top><a name="durotep-MT-patch"></a><a href="analg-opioid.html#durotep-MT-patchh">2008t^</a></td><td>L}v8TSWc}'`LvuulBvdR 0<a href="analg-opioid.html#durotep-MT-patch">000000 MT000</a> 0<a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanyl-patch">000000000</a>n0000000dR L0,gg0L00'`uun0lBvh0W0f0zvXU00_00</td></tr> <tr><td nowrap valign=top>2010t^</td><td>L}v8TSWc}'`LvuulBvdR 0000000 MT000 0<a href="analg-opioid.html#fentanil">000000</a> L0<a href="pain-chronic.html">ba'`uu</a>k00i_U00_00</td></tr> </table></ul> S <ul><li><a href="http://opioids.com/" target=new>opioids.com</a>-<a href="http://opioids.com/narcotic-drugs/chapter-2.html" target=new>CHAPTER 2: THE STORY OF OPIUM </a> <li><a href="http://www2.odn.ne.jp/~had26900/about_souyaku/about_ahen.htm" target=new>000h000n0yf[</a> <li><a href="http://home.r02.itscom.net/ktym/index.html" target=new>R1g}vs</a>! 0K000S000 0!]0n0 <li><a href="http://www.ctrl.org/boodleboys/boddlesboys2.html" target=new>The Boodle Boys</a>/ <li><a href="http://www.portfolio.mvm.ed.ac.uk/studentwebs/session2/group12/morphine.htm" target=new>Morphine</a> </ul> <br><br><table border=0 align=right vlaign=bottom><tr> <td bgcolor="#0000cc"><a href="index.html" target="_top"><font color="#ffffff"><b>Pain Relief</b></font></a></td> <td><a href="../index.html" target="_top"><img src="../IMG/bee.gif" border=0 width=20 height=21></a></td></tr></table> </body> </html>