<html> <head> <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-16"> <meta name="keywords" content="uh0u00f[v0000, u, un0xvz, u0, u0h0o0, u0n000000"> <title>u0h0un0WywX - Pain Relief</title> </head> <body text="#000000" bgcolor="#ffffff" link="#cd1039" vlink="#1c74ff" alink="#0000dd"> <table border=0><tr> <td bgcolor="#cceeff"><font color="#0000cc">%</font><a href="react.html" target="_parent">S_</a></td> <td nowrap><font size=+1 color="#0000cc"><b>%u0n0aS'`%</b></font></td></tr></table> 0!!<a href="pain-chronic.html#personality">0000000</a>/<a href="pain-chronic.html">ba'`u</a>/<a href="pain-psyc.html#alexithymia">00000000</a> <ul><li>00000-O-000000000000 <a href="subs-enzyme.html#comt">COMT</a>n0;m'`h0zOP[n0 Ypun0UD0<br> <ul><li><font color="#0000aa">COMT val<sup>158</sup>met Genotype Affects -Opioid Neurotransmitter Responses to a Pain Stressor </font>(<a href="../pain/people.html#Zubieta">Jon-Kar Zubieta</a> et. al, Science, 299(5610) 1240-1243, 2003 [<a href="http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/299/5610/1240/" target=new>Science</a>]#<a href="http://www.bio.davidson.edu/courses/genomics/2003/talbert/pain.html" target=new>1</a>/<a href="http://www.med.umich.edu/opm/newspage/2003/paingene.htm" target=new>2</a>)<br><br> <li>COMT;m'`L0ؚD0h0u00aX0k0O0D00 <li>COMTn0zOvYW'`(val158met)---000xMRn0158juvL0000K0000000k0 YSW0f0D00No00COMT;m'`o01/3-1/4k0j000 <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=2><tr><td><font color="#0000aa"><ul><li>met/met homozygotesWn0COMT</font>zOP[0cd0No0"wimpy" <font color="#0000aa">uL000</font><br> <li>val/val homozygotesWn0COMTzOP[0cd0No0"stoic"u0n0aS'`L01_O00<br> <li>heterozygotesWn0COMTzOP[0cd0No0]0n0-Ng0B000</ul></td></tr></table><br> <li>eP^i(11 met/val, 4 met/met, 3 val/val)n0TK{ masseter musclek05% ؚ5_ߘiX4l0leQW0f00positron emission tomography (<a href="method-brain.html#pet">PET</a>) with the aid of [11C] carfentanil, a u-opioid receptor-selective radioactive markerg0UOW0_000!!TMJ <li>val/val homozygotesWn0COMTzOP[0cd0No00COMT;m'`L07_D0n0g00<a href="subs-transm.html#dopamine">00000</a>L0NU000<a href="subs-endorphin.html#b-endorphine">0000000</a>L0>eQU000u0n0aS'`L0 NL000 <li>met/met homozygotesWn0COMTzOP[0cd0No0000000L0NU00k0O0D0n0g000000000n0>eQϑL0n\W00 0uL00 0h0j000 <li>met/met homozygotesWn0COMTzOP[0cd0No00-opioid|n0_jNO NL0uX00u0k0NOek0j000p'`a`k0j00S0h0L0N`U0000 </ul><br> <li>COMTzOP[k0o00aS'`n0UD0L0B000 <ul><li><font color="#0000aa">Genetic basis for individual variations in pain perception and the development of a chronic pain condition. </font>(Diatchenko L et al, Hum Mol Genet. 2005 Jan 1;14(1):135-43. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=15537663&dopt=Citation" target=new>PubMed</a>]<br><br> <li>COMTzOP[k0o00NOuaS'`low pain sensitivity0LPS 0s^GWvuaS'`average pain sensitivity0APS 0ؚuaS'`high pain sensitivity0HPS k0[_W0_03d0n0zOP[ YSL0B000 <li>eP8^N202N03t^፿gW0_0h0S000LPSL0Nd0g00B00No00myogenous temporomandibular joint disorderTMD j0i0n0K{LPSn0000000o00APS0HPSn0000000k0ky0f0COMTu };m'`L0ؚ~0c0f0D000000g0COMT0;[Y00h00uL0X7_U00_00</ul><hr><br> <li><a name="kopioid"></a><a href="anat-receptor.html#mkd">00000S[SO</a>k0[Y00aS'`n0'`]---sY'`L0Oea<br> <ul><li><font color="#0000aa">Gender difference in analgesic response to the kappa-opioid pentazocine.</font>(Gear et. al, Neurosci Lett. 1996 Mar 1;205(3):207-9.[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8852594&query_hl=3" target=new>Science Direct</a>] <li>Nk0UO0n0ir0bNU00f0D0j0D0010Nn0sY'`h08Nn07u'`k0[W0f00,{3ok(w0Z0)0bokW0_0_k00udRh0W0f0 <a href="analg-opioid.html#pentazocine">pentazocine</a> (00000)0bNW0_00 <li>sY'`g0o07u'`000 gak0ؚD0uRg0__00sY'`n0-Ng0kY00h00gL}hTgn0i0n0Bfgk0B00K0n0UD0k000uRgn0]o0000j0K0c0_00<br><br> <li><font color="#0000aa">Kappa-opioids produce significantly greater analgesia in women than in men.</font>(Gear et. al, Nat Med. 1996 Nov;2(11):1248-50.[<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=8898754&query_hl=3" target=new>Science Direct</a>] <li>uRgn0'`]o00<a href="anat-receptor.html#1-3">00000S[SO</a>k0[Y00aS'`n0'`]k0000n0h0:yUU00_00 <li>2.z^n0S[SO\OR'`udRg0B00<a href="analg-opioid.html#nubain">nalbuphine</a>h0 <a href="analg-opioid.html#butorphanol">butorphanol</a>007usYk0bNW0_00 <li>nalbuphineh0butorphanoln0!Neg00sY'`L0007_D0uRg0__00<br><br> <li><font color="#0000aa">The kappa opioid nalbuphine produces gender- and dose-dependent analgesia and antianalgesia in patients with postoperative pain.</font>(Gear et. al, Pain. 1999 Nov;83(2):339-45. [<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=10534607&query_hl=3" target=new>Science Direct</a>] <li>62Nn07u'`h069Nn0sY'`0[ak00<a href="analg-placebo.html">0000</a>h0nalbuphine(0000005, 10, 20 mgn03.zn0(uϑ)0Oc0f0N͑vi[0Lc0_00 <li>}Pg0o0uRgk0'`]o0000j0K0c0_0L003.zn0[ϑn0hQf0g00sY'`L0 gak07_D0uRg0:yW0_00(NSn0xvzP}g0ψNQ0_00) <li>7u'`g0o020mgg0o0o0c0M00W0_0uRg0__0L0010mgg0o0}Ph0]L0j0O005mgg0o0k0uRgL0Q_00 <li>sY'`g0o010mgg0o0c0M00W0_0uRgL0:yU0005mgh020mgg0o0}Ph0]L0j0K0c0_00 <li>7u'`n00F0j0u 0;[ 0Rgo0000j0K0c0_00 <li>ibN[ϑL0B000W0D0S0h00sY'`n0ibN(uϑo07u'`00NOD00W0D0S0h0L0:yUU00_00</ul><hr><br> <li>7u'`n0{0F0L0u0k0 ag0B000<br><br> <li><font color="#0000aa">Testosterone reduces responsiveness to nociceptive stimuli in a wild bird.</font>Hau et. al, Horm Behav. 2004 Aug;46(2):165-70. [<a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=pubmed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=15256306&query_hl=1" target=new>Science Direct</a>]#<a href="http://www.natureasia.com/japan/sciencenews/bionews/article.php?ID=1295" target=new>1</a><br><br> <li>7u'`0000n00000000L0u00 0[00S0h00zvW0_007u'`L0ؕD0k0n0^00g0D00h0M0j0i000000000n0000L0ؚD0h0M00u00 0[00RgL0lRn0}ck0y_zc0f0D00n0K00W00j0D00 <li>00n0000n0Gren00on0eQ0_00000k0d0Q00onn0)n^0 YH0f08^n0u0n0$P0zl[W0_00 <li>0000000L0eQc0_0000000[hV0000n0̀-Nk0y iW0f000000000NH0_0052!n0ong0o0000000000bNU00_0000o00bNU00f0D0j0D00000003 PwD0Bf00onn0-Nk0d0Q0_0~0~0k0W0f0D0_00S0F0W0f0000000000bNU00_0000o0u0k0[Y00'`L0ؚ~0c0_0S0h0L0:yU00_00 <li>0000000n0Rg0YR00n0Rg0fW0_00S0n00NH000_0000o0048!n0onk00d0Q0f0D00BfL0JSR0Z0k0j0c0_000bNU00f0D0j0D0000o0048!g0o0{0h00i0u00:yU0j0K0c0_00</ul><br> </ul> <hr><br><br><br><br><hr><br><br> <a name="empathy"></a> <table border=0><tr> <td bgcolor="#cceeff"><font color="#0000cc">%</font><a href="react.html" target="_parent">S_</a></td> <td nowrap><font size=+1 color="#0000cc"><b>%Nn0P00u0n0qQa%</b></font></td></tr></table> <ul><li>u0o0;Nvj0SOg0B00_00k00NNn0 0u0 00tY00S0h0o0Vg0B000 <li>NL0NNn0lca00 0qQa 0g0M00S0h0n0̀ofk0o0 000000000 0n0X[(WL0NW0f0D00S'`L0B000 <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3> <tr><td>Ludwig Wittgenstein0S<a href="http://www.cscd.osaka-u.ac.jp/user/rosaldo/080428menti.html" target=new>1</a>/<a href="http://plaza.rakuten.co.jp/oniyannma9/diary/200704010002/" target=new>2</a> <ul><li>0000o0Nn0u0L00K00`00F0K00Rn0u0o00K000a00F0i0P[OL0\U0D0h0M0K00f[0g0M0_00F0k00i0F0D0F0rKan0h0M0k0]00L0uD0n0K00K000uD0Bfk0i0n00F0k0/c0F0n0K0YeH000f0M0_0K000]0F0j0n0`00F0K00]0W0f0[k0Nk0vxk0hsY00S0h00g0M000F0`00<br> h0S00L0Nn0u0h0j00h00qo000S0W0O0j000NL0u0k0W00Bf00000o0_0v00 0S0n0No0uD0n0`00F0 0h0RX0W00n0L}k0gq0W0f0c,nY000W0K0W0 0S0n0No0uD0n0`00F0 0h0D0F0c,nk00c0f00Nn0u0L00K0c0_0h0D0F0S0h0k0j00n0`00F0K00Ro0 TX0u00aX0j0D0_00  0W0aX0_00]00o0Nn0u0g0o0j0O0]n0u0k0{0K0j00j0D00<br><br><hr> <li>yo0B00d[\k0D000`0Q0i0 j0k0K0n0u0L0o0W00]0S0g0]0n0u00 0s 0h0|Tv0S0h0k0Y00U0f0 yk0o0w00f0D0j0D0Q00i0[o0]0n0u0L0r_uj0n0`0h0N[W0~0Y0_Ӂn0rKak00c0f0wS00u0g0Y0S00k0o0yr gn0aL0h00j0F0]0S0g0 N_ ]0n0u0L0o0W00_0s0k0_Z0ek0 0s 00W0f0]0n0a0hY0S0h0k0Y00]0F0Y00p0 QeRL0M0_0h0M00i00j0u0L0W0_0n0K0;Sk0H00K00m0<br><br><hr> <li>yvn0`[0hQj0M0 0u0 0n0000()YMbPQn0O)257<br> 0 0Nk0NL0u00hQW0j0D0F00K0j0D00T0jk0j0D0j0i0 h0W0_0j00p00i0F0g0B00F0K00]0n04XTk0o00 0oku 0h0D0F0In0(ul0P[Ok0YeH00S0h0o0g0M0 T`00F00 00  ]00g0o00]0n0P[OL0)YMbPQg00Rg0]0n0ak0[Y00 TMR0zvfY00h00N[W0f000F00  W0K0W0]0n04XT00a000]0n0P[o00]0n0I0OF0h0M00vKbk0tW0f000F0S0h0o0g0M0j0D00<br><br><hr> <li> 0yo0uD0 0h0D0F0zvqo0rKan0g0o0j0O00u0n0 0hQ 0g0B00K00`00a0j00k0buK0c0_0co0NSn0g0B00hQg0o0j0D00 b0o0NNn0a`0]0n0 0hQ 0K00w0n0g0B000~0_0a`o0hQ04OF0S0h00n0MRch0W0f0D000d0~00b0o0]n0rKa0NNk0w0[00_00k00d0JWL0Y000F0k0 lD0_000S0`00Y006qvhQL0P0c0f0D00~0_0]00L0}P0g0o0j0D0h0D0F0S0h00n0Wyh0W0f0D00 0sN0P[o0_{0}PňW0j0D0 0(249) 0 </ul></td></tr></table><br><br> <a name="CIP"></a> <table border=1 cellspacing=0 cellpadding=3> <tr><td>Nicolas Danziger, et al. Is pain the price of empathy? The perseption of other's pain in patients with congenital insensitivity to pain. Brain, 2006; 129: 2494-2507.<a href="http://brain.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/129/9/2494" target=new>*</a> <ul><li>HQ)Y'`!quu <a href="pain-hypo.html#CIPA">CIP</a>`0[ah0W0_0<a href="method-brain.html#mri">fMRI</a>xvz <li>12N0n0CIPn0`k00NNL0*`b0W0f0uD0`D00Y000000[0_000u0k0h`00L000;uP0[0_00 <li>CIPn0`To00eP8^k0kW0f00 0uL0c0f0D00N 0L0o0c0M00H0j0D0h00i0n0 z^n0u0L0B00n0K0o00O00K00j0D00 <li>NL0uL0c0f0D00iP[h`j0i0 n0KbL0K000NH00h00{0|0 0[a 0h0W0f0NNn0 0u0 0L00K000 <li>NNn0u0L00K00ckxU0o00]0n0Nn0hQ,vj0qQa'`h0 gak0vW0f0D0~0W0_00 <li>CIPn0`T00D0000SO'`an0 0u0 00aX00S0h0o0j0O0f000%Rn0 0u0 00 0U0 0o0aX0030cc0f0D000</ul></td></tr> <tr><td>00000000 Mirror neuron0S<a href="http://www.pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/brain/brain/34/index-34.html" target=new>1</a> <ul><li>0000000000000000000'Yf[n0utf[ L0000000n03n0_j0y00[K00zvW0_0000n0MR-Ik0& <li>00L0KRY00h0M0k0;mRY00`0Q0g0j0O0000L000L0LF0 TX0KR0f0D00h0M0k00;mRW0~0W0_00 <li>KRMRΑn0F5Wn0N0-#TΑn0BΑn0Ng0B00PFΑ0tP-#TΑn0 NtP-nWMReSTSa g002U00f0D0~0Y00S000n0WL0ibY00000000L00S0n0yr_B00;mR0d0O00`0W0f0D00h0H000f0D0~0Y00<hr> <li> w^j0i0n0RirL0ꁉ0LRY00Bfh00]0n0LRh0 TX0LR0Nn0 T.zn0 PSOL0Lc0f0D00n00[W0f0D00Bfn0!Neg0;mRMO0zvuU0[00^yL}0}ހg0B000W0_0L0c0f00Nn0 PSOn0LRk0[W0f00~00g0ꁫL0 TX0LR0W0f0D00K0n00F0k0""n00F0j0;mR0Y000 <li>00k0J0D0f0o00MRKRΑh0 N-Ik0J0D0f000000000h0NW0_03;mRL0,nU00f0D000 </ul></td></tr> </table><br><br> <br><br><br><br><table border=0 align=right vlaign=bottom><tr> <td bgcolor="#0000cc"><a href="index0html" target="_top"><font color="#ffffff"><b>Pain Relief</b></font></a></td> <td><a href="../index.html" target="_top"><img src="../IMG/bee.gif" border=0 width=20 height=21></a></td></tr></table> </body> </html>